Copyright Policy

The holder of a copyright owns the right to reproduce published work. A copyright is indicated by “© 2009 ”. The date (or date range) only indicates when material was created or modified; this is not an expiration date. Copyrighted work can appear in print or on the Internet. Authors need to use care when taking advantage of printed material, images and/or data that is available for download from the Internet.

It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that proper permissions are obtained as appropriate, but some use of copyrighted material is permitted without permission under “fair use” doctrine.When authors sign a copyright transfer agreement with a publisher, ownership of the published work transfers to the publisher (for United States Government employees, to the extent transferable).

While it may be a courtesy to request permission to use published material from an author, permission to use previously published data, tables, figures, graphs and substantial reprinting of text must be obtained from whoever holds the copyright (or owns the data). The ability of an author to re-use their own previously copyrighted work depends on the terms of the copyright. Note that even when an author has permission to re-use work of others or their own work, this permission does not absolve the author of the responsibility to cite prior work.