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(MMT’s) MELT IN MOUTH TABLETS – A NOVEL BOON IN DRUG DELIVERY


B Jacob1*, A R Abubakar1, DivyaP1, Pooja C1
1T John College of Pharmacy Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT

Melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s)/Fast Dissolving tablets (FDT’s)/ as the name implies, is the forms of tablets that rapidly disperse or dissolves within the oral cavity. They disperse or dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds, the use of neither water nor chewing. Many benefits are derived from such dosage forms which include; rapid onset of action, patient compliance to such medications, and so on.

Among other conventional dosage forms, MMT’s are one of the best options in emergency cases like chronic stages of Angina Pectoris, where the patients’ survival is the major concern.Different technologies are utilized for the formulation of Melt in Mouth tablets which include: Tablet moulding, Freeze drying (Zydis method), Spray drying, Sublimation, among others.1,2 Formulated tablets are subsequently evaluated by determining the hardness, friability, drug content, variation in weight, and in-vitro dispersion time.

Various Internationally recognised acronyms are being used to describe Fast Dissolving tablets which include; Orodisposable tablet (OT), Fast Dissolving Tablet (FDT), Rapid Disintegrating Tablet (RDT), Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDT’s), among others.

Keywords: Melt in mouth tablets, rapid onset of action, patient compliance, Fast Dissolving tablets.

INTRODUCTION 

Fast Dissolving tablets (FDT’s)/ melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s)/orodisposable tablets/fast disintegrating tablets/mouth dissolving tablets/quick melt tablets, as the name implies, are the forms of tablets that rapidly disperse or dissolves within the oral cavity. They disperse or dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds, without the use of water or chewing.

Melt in mouth tablets are mostly preferred for travelling patient’s, paediatrics and psychiatric patients, as children find it difficult to swallow solid dosage forms. Many benefits are derived from such dosage forms which include; rapid onset of action, patient compliance to such medications, and so on. Among other conventional dosage forms, MMT’s are one of the best options in emergency cases like chronic stages of Angina Pectoris, where the patient’s survival is the major concern 3,4.

Different technologies are utilized for the formulation of Melt in Mouth tablets which include; Tablet moulding, Freeze drying (Zydis method), Spray drying, and Sublimation among others. Formulated tablets are subsequently evaluated by determining the hardness, friability, drug content, variation in weight, and in-vitro dispersion time.  

Characteristics Of Mouth Dissolving Tablets

  • It should not leave behind residue after administration, if so, it should be minimal.
  • Taste masking excipients should be compatible with it.
  • It should have a pleasant & satisfying mouth feel.
  • It should disintegrate and dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds.
  • It should not require water for its administration into the oral cavity, (no matter the quantity).
  • It should be easily transported and portable, with no frangibility concerns.
  • It should be less sensitive to various environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity etc.
  • It should possess sufficient rigidity to withstand manufacturing rigors.

Mechanism of Action of Mouth Dissolving Tablets

Mouth Dissolving Tablets, as the name implies, rapidly disintegrate when placed in the oral cavity by the action of salivary amylase present in the mouth. The disintegrated particles enter the capillaries which leads it to the systemic circulation, where they readily dissolve and produced the desired therapeutic action. This mechanism has an added advantage of by-passing First pass metabolism by the Liver 5.

Figure 1: Conceptual Diagram

Figure 2: Products Available in Market

 

Figure 3: Time Taken By a Mouth Dissolving Tablets to Dissolve

Figure 4: Time from Symptoms Appearance to onset of Drug Action for Conventional and Orodispersible Formulations

Techniques for Preparing Fast Dissolving Tablets:          

  • Freeze Drying/Lyophilisation
  • Tablet Moulding
  • Direct Compression Method
  1. a) Superdisintegrants
  2. b) Sugar based excipients
  • Spray Drying
  • Sublimation
  • Phase Transition  Process
  • Melt Granulation
  • Nanonization

EVALUATION OF MELT IN MOUTH TABLETS

Weight Variation:

The average weight of these tablets is plus or minus0.5 % (USP). After compression, twenty tablets were selected randomly and their mean weight was determined which should not deviate from the average weight.6,7

Hardness:

The tablets were randomly selected from the formulation batch and their crushing strength was measured using Monsanto hardness tester. Finally, the average reading was noted.

In Vitro Dispersion Time:

6ml of Buffer solution stimulating saliva fluid was taken in the 10ml measuring cylinder and Its In-Vitro Dispersion Time Was Measured by Dropping the Tablet in a Measuring Cylinder.

Friability:

Percentage friability = (Initial weight – Final weight) / Initial weight

Twenty previously weighed tablets were rotated at 25 rpm for 4 minutes, and then the tablets were weighed and kept in a Roche friabilator. Then the tablets were dusted and re- weighed to calculate the percentage weight loss. Using initial and final weights, percentage friability is calculated using the above formula 6,7.

Drug Content:

Using UV visible spectrophotometer, little amount of powder was taken from the tablet which was powdered and weighed equivalent to 10mg of haloperidol was dissolved in 100ml of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, filtered and diluted suitably and was analysed for drug content at 248nm 8.

CONCLUSION

Melt in mouth (MMT’s) concept was evolved  to  overcome  some  of  the problems  existing  in  conventional  solid dosage forms i.e. difficulty in swallowing of the tablet in  paediatric  and  geriatric  patients. Melt in mouth (MMT’s) leads to rapid onset of action, improved efficacy, bioavailability, better patient compliance due to its quick absorption from mouth to GIT with the help of the saliva.

In near future, Melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s) would be the most prescribed and convenient dosage form due to its quick action within seconds 9,10.

REFERENCE

  • ijppsjournal.com
  • technicaljournalsonline.com
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  • Ford J: The current status of solid dispersion. PharmaceuticalActaHelvetiae 1986;  61:69–88
  • Dobetti L: Fast melting tablets: Developments and technologies.  Pharm Technol Drug Deliv 2001 ;(Suppl):44–50.
  • Tanmoy Ghosh et. al. A  Review on new generationorodispersible tablets and its future prospective.  International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011; 3(1):1-7.
  • Abdul Sayeed: Mouth dissolving tablets: An overview.  Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2011; 2(3): 959-970.
  • Yang S: Applications of poly (acrylic acid) Super porous hydro gel microparticles as a superdisintegrants in fast disintegrating tablets.  J  Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2004; 56: 429-36.
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