(MMT’s) MELT IN MOUTH TABLETS – A NOVEL BOON IN DRUG DELIVERY
B Jacob1*, A R Abubakar1, DivyaP1, Pooja C1
1T John College of Pharmacy Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s)/Fast Dissolving tablets (FDT’s)/ as the name implies, is the forms of tablets that rapidly disperse or dissolves within the oral cavity. They disperse or dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds, the use of neither water nor chewing. Many benefits are derived from such dosage forms which include; rapid onset of action, patient compliance to such medications, and so on.
Among other conventional dosage forms, MMT’s are one of the best options in emergency cases like chronic stages of Angina Pectoris, where the patients’ survival is the major concern.Different technologies are utilized for the formulation of Melt in Mouth tablets which include: Tablet moulding, Freeze drying (Zydis method), Spray drying, Sublimation, among others.1,2 Formulated tablets are subsequently evaluated by determining the hardness, friability, drug content, variation in weight, and in-vitro dispersion time.
Various Internationally recognised acronyms are being used to describe Fast Dissolving tablets which include; Orodisposable tablet (OT), Fast Dissolving Tablet (FDT), Rapid Disintegrating Tablet (RDT), Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDT’s), among others.
Keywords: Melt in mouth tablets, rapid onset of action, patient compliance, Fast Dissolving tablets.
Fast Dissolving tablets (FDT’s)/ melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s)/orodisposable tablets/fast disintegrating tablets/mouth dissolving tablets/quick melt tablets, as the name implies, are the forms of tablets that rapidly disperse or dissolves within the oral cavity. They disperse or dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds, without the use of water or chewing.
Melt in mouth tablets are mostly preferred for travelling patient’s, paediatrics and psychiatric patients, as children find it difficult to swallow solid dosage forms. Many benefits are derived from such dosage forms which include; rapid onset of action, patient compliance to such medications, and so on. Among other conventional dosage forms, MMT’s are one of the best options in emergency cases like chronic stages of Angina Pectoris, where the patient’s survival is the major concern 3,4.
Different technologies are utilized for the formulation of Melt in Mouth tablets which include; Tablet moulding, Freeze drying (Zydis method), Spray drying, and Sublimation among others. Formulated tablets are subsequently evaluated by determining the hardness, friability, drug content, variation in weight, and in-vitro dispersion time.
Characteristics Of Mouth Dissolving Tablets
- It should not leave behind residue after administration, if so, it should be minimal.
- Taste masking excipients should be compatible with it.
- It should have a pleasant & satisfying mouth feel.
- It should disintegrate and dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds.
- It should not require water for its administration into the oral cavity, (no matter the quantity).
- It should be easily transported and portable, with no frangibility concerns.
- It should be less sensitive to various environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity etc.
- It should possess sufficient rigidity to withstand manufacturing rigors.
Mechanism of Action of Mouth Dissolving Tablets
Mouth Dissolving Tablets, as the name implies, rapidly disintegrate when placed in the oral cavity by the action of salivary amylase present in the mouth. The disintegrated particles enter the capillaries which leads it to the systemic circulation, where they readily dissolve and produced the desired therapeutic action. This mechanism has an added advantage of by-passing First pass metabolism by the Liver 5.
Figure 1: Conceptual Diagram
Figure 2: Products Available in Market
Figure 3: Time Taken By a Mouth Dissolving Tablets to Dissolve
Figure 4: Time from Symptoms Appearance to onset of Drug Action for Conventional and Orodispersible Formulations
Techniques for Preparing Fast Dissolving Tablets:
- Freeze Drying/Lyophilisation
- Tablet Moulding
- Direct Compression Method
- a) Superdisintegrants
- b) Sugar based excipients
- Spray Drying
- Phase Transition Process
- Melt Granulation
EVALUATION OF MELT IN MOUTH TABLETS
The average weight of these tablets is plus or minus0.5 % (USP). After compression, twenty tablets were selected randomly and their mean weight was determined which should not deviate from the average weight.6,7
The tablets were randomly selected from the formulation batch and their crushing strength was measured using Monsanto hardness tester. Finally, the average reading was noted.
In Vitro Dispersion Time:
6ml of Buffer solution stimulating saliva fluid was taken in the 10ml measuring cylinder and Its In-Vitro Dispersion Time Was Measured by Dropping the Tablet in a Measuring Cylinder.
Percentage friability = (Initial weight – Final weight) / Initial weight
Twenty previously weighed tablets were rotated at 25 rpm for 4 minutes, and then the tablets were weighed and kept in a Roche friabilator. Then the tablets were dusted and re- weighed to calculate the percentage weight loss. Using initial and final weights, percentage friability is calculated using the above formula 6,7.
Using UV visible spectrophotometer, little amount of powder was taken from the tablet which was powdered and weighed equivalent to 10mg of haloperidol was dissolved in 100ml of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, filtered and diluted suitably and was analysed for drug content at 248nm 8.
Melt in mouth (MMT’s) concept was evolved to overcome some of the problems existing in conventional solid dosage forms i.e. difficulty in swallowing of the tablet in paediatric and geriatric patients. Melt in mouth (MMT’s) leads to rapid onset of action, improved efficacy, bioavailability, better patient compliance due to its quick absorption from mouth to GIT with the help of the saliva.
In near future, Melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s) would be the most prescribed and convenient dosage form due to its quick action within seconds 9,10.
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