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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF STEM OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS- A TRADITIONAL MEDICINE


Priyanka Yadav

ABSTRACT

Cissus quadrangularis  (Linn) belongs to a family- Vitaceae and are found in hotter parts of India, Ceylon, East Africa and Malaysia and Thailand. It is commonly known as “bone setter or Hadjod” in Ayurveda  it  has used as  fracture healing and used as a food supplement . Phytochemical study of CQ showed high contents of  triterpenoids, Flavonoids , saponins, glycosides, alkaloids , proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, volatile oils etc. All of these components have potentially different metabolic and physiologic effects and gives various pharmacological activity. Present work was aimed to perform phytochemical analysis of this plant. Extract was found to be rich in various constituents like carbohydrates, alkaloids and glycosides.

key words: Cissus quadrangularis stem, Phytochemical screening, Saponins, Glycosides, Alkaloids.

Introduction

Plants, animals and minerals are natural products they have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. Indigenous people obtained therapeutic materials from various plants. which is used as medicine for cureing and healing disease. One of  traditional Indian medicinal system is a Ayurveda, being practiced for thousands of years. Considerable research on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and clinical therapeutics has been carried out on ayurvedic medicinal plants1. Many of the major pharmaceutical corporations have renewed their strategies in favour of natural products drug discovery and it is important to follow systems biology applications to facilitate the process. Numerous drugs have entered the international pharmacopoeia through the study of ethnopharmacology and traditional medicine. For ayurveda and other traditional medicines newer guidelines of standardization, manufacture and quality control are required 2.

Cissus quadrangularis (Linn) (CQ), which is belong to family Vitaceae has been used by common man in India for promotion of fracture healing and well known as“bone setter or Hadjod”. It is also known as Vitis quadrangularis Wall. It is a common perennial climber, which is distributed throughout India particularly in tropical regions3. It has been prescribed in Ayurveda as an alterative, anthelmintic, dyspeptic, digestive, tonic, analgesic in eye and ear diseases, and in the treatment of irregular menstruation and asthma. In Cameroon, the whole plant is used in oral re-hydration, while the leaf, stem, and root extracts of this plant are important in the management of various ailments.

Earlier works on Cissus quadrangularis report its effectiveness on the management of obesity and complications associated with metabolic syndrome , as well as its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity in vitro4 . It has been reported in 5 that it contains a rich source of flavanoids, triterpenoids, Vitamin C, stilbene derivatives and many others, e.g. resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol perthenocissin and phytosterols, ascorbic acid, triterpene, β-sitosterol, ketosteroid, two asymmetrical tetracyclic triterpenoids Carotene A, anabolic steroidal substancesand calcium were identified as major constituents of this plant 6. Present work was aimed to perform phytochemical analysis of this plant.

Material and Methods

The stem of plant Cissus quadrangularis, purchased from local market of Jabalpur, were identified and authenticated by Dr. AB Tiwari, Professor and Head, Department of crop and herbal physiology, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.). C. quadrangularis were collected in the month of November and dried in shade.  C. quadrangularis were coarsely powdered and used for preparation of extract.

The powder of Cissus quadrangularis was subjected to successive solvent extraction using sohxlet apparatus the powder was extracted with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and water extract was filtered through No. 4 whatman filter paper extract was then evaporated at 40.C to dryness, and stored at 40.C for further use.

Table 1: Nature and percentage yield of the extracts

S.No. Name of extract     Nature      Colour % Yield(w/w gm)
         1  Petroleum ether     Sticky Dark green       4.8
         2  Benzene     Powder Black       4.1
         3  Chloroform     Sticky Green       3.2
         4  Acetone     Sticky Green       4.9
         5  Ethanol     Sticky Green       5.6
         6 Methanol     Sticky Green       4.4
         7  Water     Sticky  Brown       5.2

Result and Discussion

The pharmacological activity of any plant is useful due to presence of chemical constituents. So Cissus quadrangularis possesses various phytochemical and pharmacological properties. the dried powder of stem of Cissus quadrangularis was extracted with succesive solvent extraction using various solvents such as Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Acetone,ethanol,methanol and water.

Phytochemical tests determined that % yield (w/w gm) of extract of plant was high in ethanol extract and lowest in chloroform extract. soxhlet apparatus was used to perform extraction the results of the extract was mentioned in table 1. the various  stem extract of the plant of CQ were subjected to phytochemical screening which reveal the prsence of various pharmacological active constituents. The result of extracts are prsented  table 2. Petroleum ether extract; Alkaloid, volattile oils, glycosides,  Benzene; fats, fixed oils, Chloroform; alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids, proteins, Acetone; flavanoids, volatile oils, Ethanol; alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, Methanol; amino acids, proteins, tanins, saponins, water ; alkaloids, Saponins, Fixed Oils. 

Table 2: Preliminary phytochemical screening of stem of CQ

S.No. Tests PEE BE CE AE EE ME WE
1 Alkaloid

Dragendroff,s test

Hager,s test

+ + + +
2 Carbohydrates

Salvino,s test

Molish test

 

+  
3 Amino acid

Millons test

+ +  
4 Tannins

Aq. FeCl3

Gelatine test

+   +  
5 Flavonoids

Zinc HCl test

Alkaline test

+ + +    
6 Protein

Heat test

Biuret test

+ + +  
7 Saponin

Foam test

+ +
8 Volatile oil

sudan III

+ +
9 Glycoside

Saponin glycoside

Legal test

+    
10 Fat and Fixed oil

Copper sulphate

  + +
11 Steroid

Salkwoski test

Abbr.; + prsent, – absent,PEE=Petroleum ether  extract, BE= Benzene extract, CE=Chloroform extract,AE= Acetone extract, EE=Ethanol extract, ME=Methanol extract, WE=Water extract

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