Volume 1 Issue 2 2016 – IJAPBR

Research Articles

1. The Approaching Therapy Targeting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Kefir Grain and Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by cognitive dysfunction affecting the quality of life of patients. Objective: to investigate the effects of MSCs and/or milk Kefir grains in Alzheimer’s disease induced in female albino rats.Materials and Methods: sixty female albino rats were divided into equal six groups (ten rats each): group1: healthy control; group 2: LPS-induced AD; group 3: LPS- induced AD in rats received single intravenous injection of MSCs; group 4: LPS-induced AD in rats received milk Kefir; group 5: LPS-induced AD in rats which received asingle intravenous injection of MSCs with a daily milk Kefir grain administration for a month; group 6: the rats of this group received kefir for one week prior to the induction of AD followed by a single intravenous Infusion of MSCs with a daily milk Kefir grain administration for a month.

Ola Sayed M. Ali, Laila Ahmed.R, Badawi A.M. and Mai M. Anwar*
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):1-21


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2. Synthesis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity

A series of nine 2-Chlormethyl-benzomimidazole derivatives were synthesized in appreciable yield. The structures of the synthesized derivatives were confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectra. All of these derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive) and Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative) and showed good to moderate antimicrobial activity as compared to standard drug streptomycin.

Amanpreet S. Kohli*, S. R. Wakode
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):22-32


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3. Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Successive Solvent Extracts Ofindigofera Astragalina

In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive solvent extracts of Indigofera astragalina was evaluated by different in vitro antioxidant assay models. The prepared solvent extracts were screened for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity on ABTS radical cation, DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical. Among the prepared extracts, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed prominent activity against the tested models. Aqueous extract showed moderate activity in all the models next to ethyl acetate. Hexane extracts fails to exhibit the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity in all the tested models.

Shiju V Mathew, Senthil Kumar R And Manivannan R*
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):33-43


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4. The Facilitatory Post Tetanic Potentiation (Fptp) as an Expression of Presynaptic Nicotinic Stimulatory Autoreceptors at the Mammalian Neuro-muscular Junction

The sea snake Enhydrina schistosa is major neurotoxin, enhydrotoxin-and produced irreversible neuromuscular blockade of single twitch responses to indirect electrical stimulation. The tetanic stimulation elicited sustained tetanus during the neuromuscular blockade. The sustained tetanus was transformed to an exaggerated twitch response, following treatment of enhydrotoxin-a plus monovalent sea snake antivenin and washout when the mammalian neuromuscular preparation completely restored to normal twitch responses to single indirect electrical stimulation.

Gawade Shivaji P.
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):44-51


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5. Status of Community Pharmacy Practice

Community pharmacy practice includes all services offered by a pharmacist to society through pharmacy where patients receive drugs. Community pharmacy is still in primitive stage in India & is confined to so called ‘Medical Store’. Standard of a profession largely depends on the performance of persons practicing it. The objective of this study was to assess the overall performance of community pharmacy & thereby identify shortcomings so that need to improve may be appreciated & realized. Data was collected through a pre-drafted structured & undisguised questionnaire & objective of the study was made known to respondents. Investigator personally visited randomly selected 90 community pharmacies scattered in Panipat city in Haryana, India & responses were recorded after observations & discussions with pharmacist present there.

Sunil Jain*, Sunil K Batra and Satish Sardana
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):52-57


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6. 3d Qsar Studies of Long Chain Quartenary Ammonium Derivatives as Soft Anti-bacterial Agents

Quantitative structure activity relationship studies have been conducted on a series (19 compounds) of long chain quaternary ammonium derivatives using Chem Office v 8.0 software. The best predictions have been obtained for antibacterial activity (r= 0.9, r2=0.91, Boots strapping r2=0.8). Both equations are validated by a test set of compounds and give satisfactory predictive r2 values of 0.9 respectively.

Blessy Jacob*, Lata K. Bisht, Naveen S, Deena David, Anjana Antony
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):58-62



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7. Test of the Venom of Bungarus Caeruleus:an Attempt to Observe Lethal Dose

Snakes are the limbless vertebrates and belong to the class of living creatures known as reptiles. More than 2,000 different types of snakes exist and nearly 400 are known to be venomous. More than 40,000 people die every year from snake bite in India. The snakes have always been a potential hazard to the farmers and farm workers. The annual mortality rate from snake bite is more in India i.e. 46,000, out of this about 12,000 die because of snake bite. Among the most venomous snakes of South East Asia Indian common krait is less studied, so in the present study the toxicity of this snake venom was observed through different routes of inoculation like subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intracerebral and intravenous route of inoculation.

Anju Dhir
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):63-67


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8. Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Rp-hplc Methods for Estimation of Manidipine Hydrochloride

A simple, fast, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Manidipine hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form. The method was developed using acetonitrile: Phosphate buffer in the proportion of 40: 60 v/v at flow rate of 1.4 ml/min as mobile phase. The separation was carried out on inertsil ODS C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column and the eluents were detected at 228nm.

Alka Agarwal *, Indrajeet Singhvi, Ayush Garg
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):68-71


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9. Therapeutic Application of Heavy Metals Ni Cu and Fe With Schiff Base Derived From Salicylaldehyde

The synthesis and characterization of new coordination compounds of Ni (II), Cu (II) and Fe (II) with Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and aniline is reported. The ligand molecule appears to be bound to the transition metals through oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Their structures have been characterized by elemental analysis and bonding in these complexes is discussed in terms of IR Spectral study. The spectroscopic results obtained are in full agreement with the proposed 2:1 and 1:2 stoichiometries. The infrared spectra of complexes display the complexation behavior of the Schiff base towards Ni (II), Cu(II) and Fe (II) ions and shows that they possesses square planar and trigonalbipyramidal geometry.

Imran Ullah1, Najeeb Ullah*, Farhan Haider, Sajid Iqbal, Aqal Badshah
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):72-77


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10. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride

In the present work fast dissolving tablets of Nebivolol hydrochloride were prepared using a combined effect of various super disintergrants consisting of sodium starch glycolate, cros carmellose sodium and crospovidone in different ratios (1:1, 1:2 & 1:3) in vice versa. Nebivolol hydrochloride is a drug choice in the treatment of hypertension. Drug compatibility with excipients was checked by FT-IR studies. The powder blends were subjected to pre-compression parameter. All the formulation was subjected to post compression parameter indicated that tablets had a good mechanical strength and resistance. Drug content was found to be in the range 93.51% - 98.99%. Among all the formulation, formulation F9 was found to be promising and was displayed an in-vitro disintegration time of 110 sec.

Harshitha M.S, Senthil kumar krishnan*, Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):78-86


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11. Development and Validation of Hplc Method for the Estimation of Glipizide in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Glipizide in marketed formulation (tablet). The proposed RP-HPLC method utilizes a Symmetry C18 (4.6 x l5 mm, 3.5 µm) or equivalent column, mobile phase comprising of 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate:acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:60 v/v and a flow rate of 1.0 ml per minute with UV detection at 233 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.82 minutes for Glipizide. The linearity was in the concentration range of 10-50 µm/ml (r2=0.999). The % mean recovery was found to be 100.7 % w/w.

Momin Jennifer G., Dubey Sonal*, Nayak Nishi, Kumar Harish
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):87-91


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12. Analytical Method Development and Its Validation for Estimation of Pantoprazole Sodium in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form by Uv- Spectroscopic Method

A simple, sensitive, spectrophotometric method in UV region has been developed for the determination of Pantoprazole in bulk and tablet dosage form. The method have been developed and validated for the assay of Paracetamol using Methanol and water as diluents. Solution of Pantoprazole in Methanol shows maximum absorbance at 267 nm in zero order spectrum method (method A), in first order derivative spectra (method B) show sharp peak at 258 nm when n=1, and in method C calculation of area under curve (AUC) for analysis of Pantoprazole in wavelength range 262-272nm.

G. A. Phadtare*, S. C. Daswadkar, M. A. Kuchekar
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):92-96


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13. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Estradiol Vaginal Tablets

As the vaginal walls become thinner and drier and lose some of the folds that allow them to stretch, some women never notice any symptoms. Others may experience a burning sensation, a feeling of dryness, some itching, or a thin, watery discharge. While symptoms of vaginal dryness and atrophy can be very bothersome, the good news is that effective treatment options are available. These include different forms of low-dose estrogens applied directly to the vagina, as well as non-hormonal treatments. In the present study an attempt was made to formulate robust vaginal tablets suitable for scale up manufacturing and commercial use. Preliminary trials were planned using different grades of Hypromellose which showed good results with respect to flow property and compressibility but a variation in release profile form tablet o tablet.

Kumkum Sarangdevot *, Bhawani Singh Sonigara
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):97-126


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14.Study of Herbochol- Poultry Feed Supplement on Estrogenic Activity in Rats.

The estrogenic activity of Herbochol-poultry feed supplement was investigated using ovarectomized The Herbochol-poultry feed supplement was administered orally at a dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg bw po for 07 consecutive days to overectomized rats. The bilateral overectomy in rats was performed under ketamine and xylazine (50,10mg/kg ip) anaesthesia and semi-sterile conditions. Sham operation was performed in same manner but only exposing the ovaries. They were administered with prophylactic gentamicin (10 mg/kg, ip) for 3 days. Ethynyl estradiol (2mg/kg sc) was used as a standard estrogenic drug. After 24h of the last day treatment, blood was withdrawn by retro orbital puncture and serum calcium, phosphorus and ALP levels were determined. The initial and final body weights of the rats were measured.

Shivalinge Gowda KP*Albin Jose, Madhavapriya BN , Khader Shareef KS, Natarajan Loganayaki , Venkateshwarlu K.
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):127-133


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15. Studies on the Insecticidal Activity of Calotropis Gigantia (Asclepidaceae) Against the Periplaneta Americana

In ancient ayurvedic medicine the plant Calotropis gigantea is known as “sweta Arka”. This work was carried out the preparation of aqueous extract of Calotrpis gigantia against the insect of p.americana. The aqueous extract was split the 200mg/ml, 400mg/ml and 800mg/ml and the standarad is 0.25% of aletherin used to perform the work. Dose depending manner we got it the result. The standard is less concentration also produced the result 100%. In our aqueous extract 100% of mortality we reached at 200mg/ml and 800mg/ml.

N.Kishore1*, R.Ramasubramania raja2, M.Sreenivasulu3, S.Nandini1, S.Rasoolbee1
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):134-141


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16. Isolation, Characterization and Anti Tubercular Screening of Major Phytochemical Marker From Orange Peel

Current advancement in drug discovery technology and search for novel chemical diversity have intensified the efforts for exploring lead from “Ayurveda” the traditional system of medicine in India. Orange (Citrus sinensis) is an herbaceous member of the family Rutaceae. These are native to tropical and subtropical regions of India, China, Northern Australia and New Caledonia. Clinical trials and animal research support the use of orange peel for antityphoid, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antibiotic and antifungal activity. The major biochemical constituents of orange peel are identified as N-decylaldehyde-methyl ester of anthranilic acid, polymethoxy flavones, nobelitin, limonene, hesperidine etc.

Manish Kashyap, Sonal Dubey*, Prabitha P and D.R. Harish Kumar
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):142-149


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17.Development and Characterisation of Medicated Chewing Gum Containing Indomethacin Ip

The chewing gum may be considered as an excellent mode of drug delivery. The medicated chewing gums containing various drug moieties are tried and approved by the regulatory bodies for their safe use in human beings. The medicated chewing gum containing Indomethacin IP was developed using the conventional process and subjected for various characterisation studies. The developed product was as good as confectionary chewing gums. The drug loading capacity of medicated chewing gum during the investigation was satisfactory.

Sarath chandran C*, Mrs. Neethu , Vipin K V
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):150-157


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18. Development and Validation of UV-visible Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Ezogabine in Tablet Dosage Form

A simple, precise and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Ezogabine in pharmaceutical formulation. Ezogabine (EZG) is an anticonvulsant drug used for the treatment of partial epilepsy. EZG are available in tablet dosage form in a dose of 50 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg. The purpose of present study is to develop a spectroscopic method for estimation of EZG in tablet formulation. The method is based upon estimation of EZG from pharmaceutical formulation by standard curve method. The absorbance was measured at 218.5 nm. The accuracy and reproducibility results are close to 100% with RSD<2.

Pawar Anil Raosaheb*, And Chaudhari Pravin Digambar
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):158-164


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19. Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Hair Oil

There is a considerable amount of attention being given to herbal formulation nowadays due to a better activity and a lower or zero side effects when compared to the synthetic formulations available in the market. The objective of the present study involves the preparation of a herbal oil using coconut oil, olive oil and Tulsi extract and its effect on hair follicle and its antimicrobial activity. The preparation was also subjected to various tests for analysis including moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water insoluble ash and sulphated ash.

L K Bisht, B Jacob, M Menon*
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):165-167


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Review Articles

1. (Mmt’s) Melt in Mouth Tablets - a Novel Boon in Drug Delivery

Melt in mouth tablets (MMT’s)/Fast Dissolving tablets (FDT’s)/ as the name implies, is the forms of tablets that rapidly disperse or dissolves within the oral cavity. They disperse or dissolve in the saliva within a fraction of seconds, the use of neither water nor chewing. Many benefits are derived from such dosage forms which include; rapid onset of action, patient compliance to such medications, and so on. Among other conventional dosage forms, MMT’s are one of the best options in emergency cases like chronic stages of Angina Pectoris, where the patients’ survival is the major concern.

B Jacob*, A R Abubakar, DivyaP, Pooja C
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):168-172


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2. A Review of Exenatide – Promising Antidiabetic Agent for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Problems Associated With Diabetis Mellitus Type 2

Management of T2DMin obese patients is particularly challenging as treatment with the majority of glucose-lowering agents results in weight gain. Thus, the development of a therapeutic option which could improve glycemic control without weight gain or hypoglycemia, such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog exenatide, is a welcome addition to the currently available therapies in the management of T2DM. With recognition and better understanding of the role of incretin hormones in T2DM, exenatide was developed and introduced into clinical practice in 2005. Both randomized controlled trials and retrospective observational studies have shown that treatment with exenatide not only improves glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia, but also results in concurrent weight loss and the additional benefit of improvement in cardiovascular risk factors.

D Kapoor *, Vyas RB, Lad C, Patel M, Tyagi BL
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):173-186
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3. A Review on the Effects of Drug Abuse Through Femoral Triangle

The most common form of intravenous or parenteral drug abuse was through the femoral region. The femoral vein was frequently used to gain vascular access by habitual drug abusers. Quite often the common complications were cellulitis, abscess formation, acute or chronic deep venous thrombosis, infected thrombi in the vein and artery, arteriovenous fistulae, infective endocarditis, and pseudo aneurysm formation. This complication of intravenous drug abuse was not only limb threatening but can also be life threatening.

Ranadheer Chowdary.P, Praveen.D*, Poojitha Devi.G
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):187-190


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4. Bio Analytical Method Development and Validation: a Review

Bio analytical methods are used for the quantitative analysis of drugs and their metabolites in the biological media like saliva, urine, plasma, serum. Development and validation of Bio analytical method is important to understand the pharmacokinetics of any drug and/or its metabolites. Bio analytical method development consists of three interrelated parts sample preparation, chromatographic separation and detection by using proper analytical method. Validation of a Bio analytical method is the process by which it is established that the performance characteristics of the method meet the requirements for the intended Bio analytical application.


Priyanka Patel*, Nilesh Patel, Ashok Patel, Ajay Patel, Amit Vyas
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):191-196


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5. Bisphenol-a: an Environmental Toxicant

There is a great concern that exposure to man-made substances that mimic endogenous hormones may adversely affect mammalian reproduction. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of them and the most common compound used in industry for the manufacture of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. Several studies reported BPA migrates from can surface coatings or plastics into food and with repeated use of such products; it has been detected in the biological samples of general population.

Nupoor Dhagga, Priya Gupta, Seema Srivastava*
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):197-212


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6. Molecular Basis of Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is a life threatening incurable disorder. The advances in physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. In this review, the recent progresses in the understanding of molecular mechanism are presented.


Ambrin Farizah Babua*
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):213-218

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7. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems: a Review

Products to be instilled into the eye, while not parenteral by definition, have many similar and often identical characteristics. The formulation of stable, therapeutically active ophthalmic preparations requires high purity of ingredients as well as freedom from chemical, physical (particles), and microbial contaminants. These preparations usually require buffers to stabilize the pH of the product, additives to render it isotonic or nearly so, and stabilizers such as antioxidants for the particular ingredients.

Ayush Garg*, Nisha Sharma, Alka Agarwal, Indrajeet Singhvi
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):219-233


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8. Understanding the Carbon Nanostructures and Their Pharmaceutical Applications

In 1991 the field of carbon nanotube research was launched by the initial investigational observation of carbon nanotubes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped macromolecules with a few nanometers of radius, which can be grown up to 20 cm in length. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are measured as a new form of pure carbon. In nature there are two types of carbon nanotubes exist: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and multi-walled nanotube (MWNT). Nanoscale dimension (1-D) of carbon nanotubes have been well-known over the past 15 years. Carbon nanotubes can usually be produced using arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor diposition (CVD).

Shrimali N. *, Chatterjee A., Jaimini M., Chauhan B. S., Keshwani B.
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):234-245


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9. Whitener Poisoning: a Cause of Concern

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The whitener poisoning is being used as an addictive substance in India and it is being abused since last few years. The main victim of this is young school going children & adolescent who are highly addicted to the consumption of this poison through various method. This has led to much lifelong complication and resulting in fatal.

Ranjit Nair*, G. Gouthami1, B. Tejasree1, P.Krishnakanth, A. Santhoshini1, P. Swathi1, B. Venkateswarlu
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2): 246-250


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10. Sample Preparation in Bioanalysis: a Review

Bioanalysis is sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of drugs and their metabolites in biological systems. Whereas Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is a technique which is widely used for the quantification of drug from biological fluid. This article reviews the most recent advances in sample preparation, separation analysis and different type of cartridge used in analysis of biological fluid.

Priyanka Patel*, Ashok Patel, Ajay Patel, Amit Vyas, Nilesh Patel
JAPBR, 2016; 1(2):251-259


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11. Medicinal Plants of Anti-arthritic Potential: a Review

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the connective tissues throughout the body, but especially around the joints. RA is the most common inflammatory arthritis and affects about one percent of the population. RA affects three times more women than men.

Lekhni Soni, Rupesh K. Gautam1*, Prateek K. Jain
IJAPBR, 2016; 1(2):260-267


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