After metabolism of carbohydrate, glucose is filtered in the glomerular and then it is almost completely reabsorbed into circulation from the proximal renal tubules. S1 segment of the proximal tubule contains sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), which is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption. Some molecules which have property of inhibiting SGLT-2 have been reported in literature few of them reached in phase III of clinical trial. These agents reduce glucose reabsorption and increase urinary excretion of glucose and could be a novel alternative for the existing anti-diabetic agents in the market.
These compounds showed reduction in fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, and reduced hemoglobin A1C in animal models and humans with type-2 diabetes. Animal studies have suggested that lowering of blood sugar level with SGLT-2 inhibitors may also improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function. SGLT-2 inhibitors cause urinary excretion of excess calories is associated with reduction in body weight, slight reductions in blood pressure and mild diuretic action. Moreover, some SGLT-2 inhibitors having C-glucoside, have pharmacokinetic properties that make them suitable to once-daily dosing.
Key words: Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, glucose sensing, membrane symporters, and mitochondrial oxidative flux.