STUDIES ON THE INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTIA (ASCLEPIDACEAE) AGAINST THE PERIPLANETA AMERICANA
N.Kishore1*, R.Ramasubramania raja2, M.Sreenivasulu3, S.Nandini1, S.Rasoolbee1
1. Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, India.
2. Department of Pharmacognosy, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, India.
3. Principal, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, India.
In ancient ayurvedic medicine the plant Calotropis gigantea is known as “sweta Arka”. This work was carried out the preparation of aqueous extract of Calotrpis gigantia against the insect of p.americana. The aqueous extract was split the 200mg/ml, 400mg/ml and 800mg/ml and the standarad is 0.25% of aletherin used to perform the work. Dose depending manner we got it the result. The standard is less concentration also produced the result 100%. In our aqueous extract 100% of mortality we reached at 200mg/ml and 800mg/ml. In our country developing status only, now a day’s developed countries America also focused and used the herbal based things, everywhere easily available without cost of the herbals identified. Once focus of this plant work will be complete up to the isolation level it will become a market also. So this study basically we identified the insecticide activity is present in the plant of C.gigantia.
Keywords: Calotropis gigantean, Alethrin, P.americana, Insects, Ayurvedic medicine
From pre-historic times to the modern era in many parts of the world and India, plants, animals and other natural objects have profound influence on culture and civilization of man. Since the beginning of civilization, human beings have worshiped plants and such plants are conserved as a genetic resource and used as food, fodder, fibre, fertilizer, fuel, and febrifuge in every other way. Calotropis gigantea is one such plant 1.
Nature: Calotropis is drought resistant; salt tolerant to a relatively high degree, grows wild up to 900 meters throughout the country and prefers disturbed sandy soils with mean annual rainfall: 300-400 mm. Through its wind and animal dispersed seeds, it quickly becomes established as a weed along degraded roadsides, lagoon edges and in overgrazed native pastures. It has a preference for and is often dominant in areas of abandoned cultivation especially disturbed sandy soils and low rainfall. It is assumed to be an indicator of cultivation 2.
Fig: 1 Calotropis gigantea
It is a native of India, China and Malaysia and distributed in the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, guinea Bissau, India, Iran. Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan, Arab Jamahiriya, Mali, Mauritania, morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar 3.
VENACULAR NAMES 4
Telugu: Jilledu puvvu
SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION 4
The present study was performed the insecticidal activity of Calotropis ganntia leaf aqueous extract.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The plant of Calotropis gigantia was collected from January 2016 the surrounding area of Narayana medical college hospital , chithareddypalem away from 7 km of Nellore. The plant was initially identified by local people then the plant authenticated by Dr. Venkata ramana ,botanist, VR college Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. The plant voucher specimen was kept in the college.
Extraction 5, 6
The dried powdered drug 120gm separable equal portion was taken in round bottomed flask, each flask was added 700ml of 0.02%chloroform water .Kept maceration for 3 days after filtered the solution and evaporation done by using heating mantle. Finally got the extractive is 30.02%w/w. the extract is preserved in refrigerator for further use.
Phytochemical Screening 7, 8
Detection of Alkaloids:
The small portions of solvents of solvent free chloroform, alcoholic and water extracts are stirred separately with a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid and filtered. the filtrate may be tested carefully with various alkaloidal reagents; Mayer’s reagent (cream precipitate), Dragendroff’s reagent (orange brown precipitate),Hager’s reagent 9tellow precipitate)and Wagner’s reagent (reddish-brown precipitate).
Detection of Carbohydrates And Glycosides:
Small quantities (200mg) of alcoholic and aqueous extracts are dissolved separately in 5ml of distilled water and filtered. The filtrate may be subjected to Molisch’s test to detect the presence of carbohydrates.
Another small portion of extract is hydrolyzed with dilute hydrochloric acid for few hours in water-bath and is subjected to Libermann-Buchard’s tests to detect presence of different glycosides.
A small amount of extact is dissolved in water and treated with Fehling’s, Barfoeds and Benedict’s reagents to detect presence of different sugars.
Detection of Phytosterols:
The petroleum ether,acetone and alcoholic extracts are refluxed separately with solution of alcoholic potassium hydroxide till complete saponification takes place. The saponification mixture is diluted with distilled water and extracted with ether. The ethereal extract is eva[porated and the residue(un saponifiable matter)is subjected to Liebermann’s and Burchard’s tests.
Detection of Fixed Oils and Fats:
A small quantity of petroleum ether and benzene extracts is pressed separately between two filter papers. Oil stains on the paper indicate the presence of fixed oil. A few drops of 0.5N alcoholic potassium hydroxide is added to a small quantity of petroleum ether or benzene extract along with a drop of phenolphthalein .The mixture is heated on water bath foe 1-2hr.Formation of soap or partial neutralisation of alkali indicates the presence of fixed oils and fats.
Detection of Saponins:
About 1ml of alcoholic and aqueous extracts is diluted separately with distilled water to 20ml and shaken in a graduated cylinder for 15min.One cm layer of foam indicates presence of saponins. The test solution may be subjected to test for haemolysis.
Detection of Phenolic Compounds and Tannins:
Small quantities of alcoholic and aqueous extracts in water are tested for the presence of phenolic compounds and tannins with dilute ferric chloride solution (5%), 1%solution of gelatine containing 10%sodium chloride, 10%lead acetate and aqueous bromine solutions.
Detection of Proteins and Free Amino Acids:
Small quantities of alcoholic and aqueous extracts are dissolved in a few ml of water and subjected to Millen’s,Biuret and Ninhydrin tests.
Detection of Gums and Mucilage:
About 10ml of aqueous extract is added to 25 ml of absolute alcohol with constant stirring. The precipitate is dried in air. Then the precipitate is examined for its swelling properties and for the presence of carbohydrates.
Detection of Volatile Oil:
About 50gm of powdered material is taken in a volatile oil estimation apparatus and subjected to hydro-distillation for the detection of volatile oil. The distillate is collected in the graduated tube of the assembly in which the aqueous portion is automatically separated from the volatile oil, if it is present in the drug, and returned back to the distillation flask.
The phytochemical investigation results showed the table number 1.
Table No: 1 Phytochemical Screening
+ Present – Absent
INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY 9, 10
Collection of Test Animal:
Test animal were periplaneta Americana was collected near simhapuri railway station at Nellore. Periplaneta Americana were used in this study
Exposure Technique of Test Organism to Leaf Extract
200mg, 400mg, 800mg/ml of the extract were taken and applied to the centre of moistened filter paper placed at the bottom of small conical flask.10 insects were introduced into the flask and covered with lid. The flask was then turned over during exposure, so that the insect will be in contact with the extract. Each treatment had three replicates and the flask was kept under observation for 48hrs in dark environment. The percentage mortality was calculated and reported. The reference standard is known concentration of marketed available products. The results showed the table no: 2.
Table No: 2 Insecticidal Activity
|S.NO||Concentration(mg/ml)||%mortality of p.americana||%survival of p.americana|
Characteristics of calotropis gigantia:
Colour: pale greenish-yellow
Odour: Nauseating ,disagreeable
Calotropis gigantia aqueous extract:
Calotropis gigantia aqueous extract yield =31.02%w/w.
Character of extract : Aqueous extract of calotropis gigantia = semi-solid
Colour : Reddish- brown
Odour : characteristic
Solubility : Freely soluble in water, sparingly in methanol, Ethanol chloroform
Taste : slightly bitter
Fig : 3 C.gigantea Aq. extract Fig : 4 C.gigantea Aq. extract (Watch glass)
Fig No: 5 Control Fig No: 6 Standard
Fig : 7 Test 200mg/ml, 400mg/ml, 800mg/ml
Calotropis gigantia commonly known as mudar or yercum belongs to the family Asclepidaceae. Calotropis gigantea is a widespread desert weed and known for various medicinal properties. Calotropis gigantea is a wasteland weed improved known as milkweed, habitat of Asian countries that includes, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka and China. Tribal people were using this plan parts to cure several illnesses such as toothache, earache, sprain, anxiety, pain, epilepsy, diarrhoea and mental disorders. C. gigantea is scientifically reported for its anti-Candida activity, cytotoxic activity, antipyretic activity and wound healing activity.
Current study was focused the preparation of aqueous extraction of Calotrpis gigantia by cold maceration process. The yield value of aqueous extract of calotropis gigantia is 31.02%w/w. The aqueous extract was screened the phytoconstituents by colour reaction test. Saponins, glycosides , and carbohydrate were present in the aqueous extract of C.gigantia. The Periplanata Americana is a insect it is present in the every home also, it is spread the disease easily from one where to other this is common news. So the chemical reagents are used to destroy the p.americana every place, but it’s very harmful effect produced like allergy, asthma and skin rashes to the public and children, so here our studied the aqueous extract of C.gigantia was find out against this insects, without side effct. The aqueous extract was split the 200mg/ml, 400mg/ml and 800mg/ml and the standarad is 0.25% of aletherin used to perform the work. Dose depending manner we got it the result. The standard is less concentration also produced the result 100%. In our aqueous extract 86.6% of mortality we reached at 800mg/ml.
This work was carried out the preparation of aqueous extraction of Calotrpis gigantia by cold maceration process (3 days). The yield value of aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantia is 31.02%w/w. The presenting the phytoconstituents in the C.gigantia is glycosides, and carbohydrate. The Periplanata Americana is a insect it is present in the every home also, it is spread the disease easily from one where to other this is common news. So the chemical reagents are used to obliterate the p.americana every place, but it’s very harmful effect produced like allergy, asthma and skin rashes to the public and children, so here our work the aqueous extract of C.gigantia was find out against this insects, without side effect. The aqueous extract was split the 200mg/ml, 400mg/ml and 800mg/ml and the standard is 0.25% of aletherin used to perform the work. Dose depending manner we got it the result. The standard is less concentration also produced the result 100%. In our aqueous extract 100% of mortality we reached at 200mg/ml and 800mg/ml. In our country developing status only, now a day’s developed countries America also focused and used the herbal based things, everywhere easily available without cost of the herbals identified. Once focus of this plant work will be complete up to the isolation level it will become a market also. So this study basically we identified the insecticide activity is present in the plant of C.gigantia.
- Ashraful Alam, M. Rowshanul Habib, Farjana Nikkon, 2 1 M Khalequzzaman and M. Rezaul KarimInsecticidal Activity of Root Bark of Calotropis gigantea L. Against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) World Journal of Zoology,2009; 4 (2): 90-95.
- Narendra nalwaya ,gauravpokharna1,lokeshdeb2,naveenkumarjain wound healing activity of latex of calotropis gigantean International journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical, sciences, 2009;1(1).
- Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao, Gaurav Kumar, Loganathan Karthik, antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves – an in vitro study 2010; 4(2)-024.
- Saumya Priya Basu’ Saumya Das , Sanjita Das, ManasKDas effect of methanolic extract of the leaves of calotropis giganteabr. on leukocyte and neutrophil migration NIET journal of engineering &technology ;winter 2011.
- Saratha, S. Iyyam Pillai and S. Subramanian1 Isolation and characterization of lupeol, a triterpenoid from calotropis gigantea Latex, 2011; 10(2) September – October Article-010.
- Jenabhai B. Chauhan , Akanksha A. Garg Arpit M. ThakkarAntibacterial and phytochemical studies on Calotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. Latex against selected cariogenic bacteria Saudi journal of biological sciences, 2012;19,87-91.
- Murugan .T Antimicrobial activity of leaves and latex extract of the herbal plant calotropis gigantea International Journal of Biology ,Pharmacy and Allied Sciences April, 2012; 1(3).
- V. Bhaskara Rao Kumar, Karthik, L. Kirthi, A.V, Rahuman, A.A Larvicidal, repellent and ovicidal activity of Calotropis gigantean against Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012; 8(3): 869-880.
- Samanta krishanu and Mishra divyansh preliminary physico-phytochemical and phyto-cognostical evaluation of the leaves of calotropis gigantea(L.R) BR International journal of pharmaceutical and chemical sciences, 2013; 2 (4) oct-dec.